Overview of the diverse mechanisms by which Type 2 Diabetes can cause AD pathogenesis.

Overview of the diverse mechanisms by which Type 2 Diabetes can cause AD pathogenesis.

Overview of the diverse mechanisms by which Type 2 Diabetes can cause AD pathogenesis. Type 2 Diabetes accompanied by insulin resistance and hyperglycemia gives rise to metabolic problems in the brain and other target tissues that sets off a cascade of pathogenic processes such as oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, advanced glycation products and autophagic dysfunction. The reactive oxygen species generated by these pathways expedite the process of neuronal death. At the same time, the insulin resistance impairs the downstream signaling pathways and exacerbates the formation of Aβ oligomers and aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau. The cumulative effect of all these factors expose the neurons to a range of assaults and gradually result in the loss of synapses and neuronal death.