Spinal Cord Research: Top 5 Articles from 2015’s Q1

In the first quarter of 2015, there have already been a number of significant scientific publications with implications for locomotion, pain processing, and spinal cord injury. Here we review five of the studies in the area of spinal cord research we deem particularly promising for furthering research and clinical interventions in these areas.

Spinal Cord Research #1

Systemic Administration of Epothilone B promotes Axon Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury

Journal: Science • Authors: Frank Bradke and Colleagues • Head Institution: German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Spinal Cord Research #1

Systemic Administration of Epothilone B promotes Axon Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury

Journal: Science • Authors: Frank Bradke and Colleagues • Head Institution: German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Spinal Cord Research #1

Systemic Administration of Epothilone B promotes Axon Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury
Journal: Science • Authors: Frank Bradke and Colleagues • Head Institution: German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Spinal Cord Research #1

Systemic Administration of Epothilone B promotes Axon Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury
Journal: Science • Authors: Frank Bradke and Colleagues • Head Institution: German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases

The scar tissue that results from from spinal cord injury (SCI) poses a significant challenge for recovery because it contains inhibitory factors that prevent the regeneration of nerve cell’s axons. Growth of these axons is critical for recovery because the axons allow information to be transmitted between cells and are thus essential for normal movement.

Bradke and colleagues at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases have recently demonstrated that epothilone B, a drug that is currently on the market to treat cancer, promotes axon regrowth and improves motor function in animal models of SCI when used in low doses. The drug works by modifying the activity of microtubules, which are structural supports within cells. Specifically, epothilone B reduces the formation of these microtubules in scar tissue cells, which prevents the build up of scar tissue. At the same time, the drug leads to microtubule growth in the axon tips of damaged nerve cells, which promotes regeneration.

What makes Bradke et al.’s findings particularly promising is that the physiological results are complemented by clinically relevant results. In other words, not only does epothilone B affect nerve cells in what would appear to be a beneficial manner, but the drug also leads to better mobility, balance, and coordination in SCI animals.

Spinal Cord Research - Cross Section Rat Spinal Cord (DZNE / Jörg Ruschel)

Cross section rat spinal cord. Immunostaining: axons (red), synapses (green), motor neurons (blue). (Credit: DZNE / Jörg Ruschel).

Spinal Cord Research - Cross Section Rat Spinal Cord (DZNE / Jörg Ruschel)

Cross section rat spinal cord. Immunostaining: axons (red), synapses (green), motor neurons (blue). (Credit: DZNE / Jörg Ruschel).

Spinal Cord Research - Cross Section Rat Spinal Cord (DZNE / Jörg Ruschel)

Cross section rat spinal cord. Immunostaining: axons (red), synapses (green), motor neurons (blue). (Credit: DZNE / Jörg Ruschel).

Spinal Cord Research - Cross Section Rat Spinal Cord (DZNE / Jörg Ruschel)

Cross section rat spinal cord. Immunostaining: axons (red), synapses (green), motor neurons (blue). (Credit: DZNE / Jörg Ruschel).

Spinal Cord Research #2

Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPσ promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

Journal: Nature • Authors: Jerry Silver and colleagues • Head Institution: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Spinal Cord Research #2

Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPσ promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

Journal: Nature • Authors: Jerry Silver and colleagues • Head Institution: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Spinal Cord Research #2

Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPσ promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury
Journal: Nature • Authors: Jerry Silver and colleagues • Head Institution: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Spinal Cord Research #2

Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPσ promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury
Journal: Nature • Authors: Jerry Silver and colleagues • Head Institution: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

A main clinical objective following SCI is to protect or restore muscular function in affected areas of the body. Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine recently demonstrated the ability of a compound, Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase [Wikipedia] σ (PTP σ ) τo activate paralyzed muscles in the majority of animals to which the peptide was administered.

Like Bradke and colleagues, these researchers believe SCI recovery depends on an ability to overcome the limitations in regeneration within the nervous system caused by scar tissue. This group specifically focused on the action of chondroitin sulphate prosteoglycans (CSPGs), which accumulate in scar tissue after SCI and limit the regrowth of axons. In this publication, the scientists showed that PTP σ prevents CSPGs from inhibiting regeneration. Rats with SCI that received systemic administration of PTP σ recovered locomotor functions. These findings have significant implications for the treatment of humans with SCI.

Spinal Cord Research - Astrocyte and satellite cell response to ISP and the adhesion assay (Credit: Macmillan Publishers Limited).

Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPs promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury: Astrocyte and Satellite Cell Response to ISP and the Adhesion Assay [Nature 13974]; a, Purified GFAP-positive mature astrocytes (green) did not respond to ISP. b, S100-positive satellite glia were able to cross the gradient of CSPG after ISP treatment. Scale bar, 50 mm. c, d, Response of neurons and axons upon a CSPG-rich substrate to agitation after ISP treatment. Scale bar, 50 mm. (Credit: Macmillan Publishers Limited).

Spinal Cord Research - Astrocyte and satellite cell response to ISP and the adhesion assay (Credit: Macmillan Publishers Limited).

Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPs promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury: Astrocyte and Satellite Cell Response to ISP and the Adhesion Assay [Nature 13974]; a, Purified GFAP-positive mature astrocytes (green) did not respond to ISP. b, S100-positive satellite glia were able to cross the gradient of CSPG after ISP treatment. Scale bar, 50 mm. c, d, Response of neurons and axons upon a CSPG-rich substrate to agitation after ISP treatment. Scale bar, 50 mm. (Credit: Macmillan Publishers Limited).

Spinal Cord Research - Astrocyte and satellite cell response to ISP and the adhesion assay (Credit: Macmillan Publishers Limited).

Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPs promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury: Astrocyte and Satellite Cell Response to ISP and the Adhesion Assay [Nature 13974]; a, Purified GFAP-positive mature astrocytes (green) did not respond to ISP. b, S100-positive satellite glia were able to cross the gradient of CSPG after ISP treatment. Scale bar, 50 mm. c, d, Response of neurons and axons upon a CSPG-rich substrate to agitation after ISP treatment. Scale bar, 50 mm. (Credit: Macmillan Publishers Limited).

Spinal Cord Research - Astrocyte and satellite cell response to ISP and the adhesion assay (Credit: Macmillan Publishers Limited).

Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPs promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury: Astrocyte and Satellite Cell Response to ISP and the Adhesion Assay [Nature 13974]; a, Purified GFAP-positive mature astrocytes (green) did not respond to ISP. b, S100-positive satellite glia were able to cross the gradient of CSPG after ISP treatment. Scale bar, 50 mm. c, d, Response of neurons and axons upon a CSPG-rich substrate to agitation after ISP treatment. Scale bar, 50 mm. (Credit: Macmillan Publishers Limited).

Spinal Cord Research #3

Reducing the Energy Cost of Human Walking using an Unpowered Exoskeleton

Journal: Nature • Authors: Steven Collins and colleagues • Head Institution: Carnegie Mellon University

Spinal Cord Research #3

Reducing the Energy Cost of Human Walking using an Unpowered Exoskeleton

Journal: Nature • Authors: Steven Collins and colleagues • Head Institution: Carnegie Mellon University

Spinal Cord Research #3

Reducing the Energy Cost of Human Walking using an Unpowered Exoskeleton
Journal: Nature • Authors: Steven Collins and colleagues • Head Institution: Carnegie Mellon University

Spinal Cord Research #3

Reducing the Energy Cost of Human Walking using an Unpowered Exoskeleton
Journal: Nature • Authors: Steven Collins and colleagues • Head Institution: Carnegie Mellon University

Walking is the most energy expensive activity humans engage in daily. Scientists and engineers have been working for decades to identify ways to make walking easier. Many of the solutions have involved adding electric power to devices that aid the walking process. However, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and North Carolina State University have recently created a device that reduces the metabolic energy associated with walking by about 7% without any external power source. The simple device, which should be relatively inexpensive when it comes to market, is an ankle exoskeleton that reduces the forces the calf normally exerts during walking activity. Because the device is lightweight, it does not require extra energy to carry it while walking. The device is also comfortable, and those wearing it tend not to notice it except for when putting it on and taking it off.


A demonstration of the exoskeleton’s function during walking, with events annotated, played back at normal and reduced frame rates. (Credit: Steven H. Collins, M. Bruce Wiggin, and Gregory S. Sawicki).


A demonstration of the exoskeleton’s function during walking, with events annotated, played back at normal and reduced frame rates. (Credit: Steven H. Collins, M. Bruce Wiggin, and Gregory S. Sawicki).


A demonstration of the exoskeleton’s function during walking, with events annotated, played back at normal and reduced frame rates. (Credit: Steven H. Collins, M. Bruce Wiggin, and Gregory S. Sawicki).


A demonstration of the exoskeleton’s function during walking, with events annotated, played back at normal and reduced frame rates. (Credit: Steven H. Collins, M. Bruce Wiggin, and Gregory S. Sawicki).

Spinal Cord Research #4

Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch

Journal: Neuron • Authors: Hanns Zeilhofer and colleagues • Head Institution: University of Zurich

Spinal Cord Research #4

Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch

Journal: Neuron • Authors: Hanns Zeilhofer and colleagues • Head Institution: University of Zurich

Spinal Cord Research #4

Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch
Journal: Neuron • Authors: Hanns Zeilhofer and colleagues • Head Institution: University of Zurich

Spinal Cord Research #4

Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch
Journal: Neuron • Authors: Hanns Zeilhofer and colleagues • Head Institution: University of Zurich

In the 1960s, Melzack and Wall proposed the Gate Control Theory for pain processing. Previous theories for pain processing included the notion that specific ‘pain’ fibers conveyed information about pain, as well as the competing theory that fibers with other functions fired at high frequencies to convey pain information. Melzack and Wall attempted to provide a theory that was consistent with the observation that pain persists after spinal surgery, a phenomenon that previous theories could not explain. The theory posited that inhibitory cells in the spinal cord control whether pain signals are sent to the brain.

Over 50 years later, scientists in Europe have provided evidence for Melzack and Wall’s theory. The researchers identified inhibitory cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that receive information related to sensory stimuli. When the scientists killed or silenced these cells in animals, the animals became hypersensitive to stimuli related to touch, including mechanical and itch-inducing, as well as hot and cold stimuli. When silenced cells were reactivated, the animals’ normal sensitivity to the stimuli returned. These findings mark a significant step forward in our understanding of pain processing.

Spinal Cord Research - Pharmacogenetic Activation of Spinal Glycinergic Neurons ameliorates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Chloroquine- or Histamine-Induced Itch (Credit: Neuron Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1289-1304 (March 2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.028)

Pharmacogenetic Activation of Spinal Glycinergic Neurons ameliorates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Chloroquine- or Histamine-Induced Itch (Credit: Neuron Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1289-1304 (March 2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.028)

Spinal Cord Research - Pharmacogenetic Activation of Spinal Glycinergic Neurons ameliorates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Chloroquine- or Histamine-Induced Itch (Credit: Neuron Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1289-1304 (March 2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.028)

Pharmacogenetic Activation of Spinal Glycinergic Neurons ameliorates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Chloroquine- or Histamine-Induced Itch (Credit: Neuron Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1289-1304 (March 2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.028)

Spinal Cord Research - Pharmacogenetic Activation of Spinal Glycinergic Neurons ameliorates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Chloroquine- or Histamine-Induced Itch (Credit: Neuron Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1289-1304 (March 2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.028)

Pharmacogenetic Activation of Spinal Glycinergic Neurons ameliorates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Chloroquine- or Histamine-Induced Itch (Credit: Neuron Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1289-1304 (March 2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.028)

Spinal Cord Research - Pharmacogenetic Activation of Spinal Glycinergic Neurons ameliorates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Chloroquine- or Histamine-Induced Itch (Credit: Neuron Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1289-1304 (March 2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.028)

Pharmacogenetic Activation of Spinal Glycinergic Neurons ameliorates CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Chloroquine- or Histamine-Induced Itch (Credit: Neuron Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1289-1304 (March 2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.028)

Spinal Cord Research #5

Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Completely Transected Spinal Cord Using Induced Neural Stem Cells and Gelatin-Electrospun Poly / Polyethylene Glycol Scaffolds

Journal: PLoS One • Authors: Chang Liu and Colleagues • Head Institution: Sun Yat-Sen University

Spinal Cord Research #5

Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Completely Transected Spinal Cord Using Induced Neural Stem Cells and Gelatin-Electrospun Poly / Polyethylene Glycol Scaffolds

Journal: PLoS One • Authors: Chang Liu and Colleagues • Head Institution: Sun Yat-Sen University

Spinal Cord Research #5

Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Completely Transected Spinal Cord Using Induced Neural Stem Cells and Gelatin-Electrospun Poly / Polyethylene Glycol Scaffolds
Journal: PLoS One • Authors: Chang Liu and Colleagues • Head Institution: Sun Yat-Sen University

Spinal Cord Research #5

Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Completely Transected Spinal Cord Using Induced Neural Stem Cells and Gelatin-Electrospun Poly / Polyethylene Glycol Scaffolds
Journal: PLoS One • Authors: Chang Liu and Colleagues • Head Institution: Sun Yat-Sen University

The once far-fetched notion of engineering tissue to treat SCI has become much more realistic in recent years. The major challenges in tissue engineering are identifying an appropriate cell source for the tissue, as well as a scaffold on which to build that tissue. Researchers in China recently published their observations of spinal cord repair in mice using a specific tissue engineering strategy.

The researchers, led by Chang Liu, used a retrovirus to convert embryonic fibroblasts into neural stem cells that could act as a cell source. They then built a scaffold out of PLGA and PEG, which are biodegradable polymers. After implantation in mice with SCI, the cells proliferated and differentiated into distinct cells of the nervous system, and they developed several features of normal neural stem cells within 8 weeks.

The potential for converted neural stem cells and PLGA-PEG scaffolds to provide effective transplants for the treatment of SCI is bolstered by Liu et al.’s observations of the spinal cord itself. In addition to cell proliferation, their tissue-engineering strategy helped to restore the spinal cord’s continuity and function.

Spinal Cord Research - Gross morphology and cavity formation of spinal cord tissue dissected at 8 weeks post-operation (Credit: PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117709)

Gross Morphology and Cavity Formation of Spinal Cord Tissue dissected at 8 Weeks Post-Op: The PLGA and PLGA-PEG nanofibers both contributed to tissue structural integrity, whereas a large gap in the lesion site was still present in the control group (A). In both of PLGA and PLGA-PEG group, cavity areas were reduced compared with control group (B). The smallest cavity area was observed in PLGA-PEG group. However, larger cavities were observed in the PLGA group (P<0.05, Student t-test, n = 3) (C). (Credit: PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117709)

Spinal Cord Research - Gross morphology and cavity formation of spinal cord tissue dissected at 8 weeks post-operation (Credit: PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117709)

Gross Morphology and Cavity Formation of Spinal Cord Tissue dissected at 8 Weeks Post-Op: The PLGA and PLGA-PEG nanofibers both contributed to tissue structural integrity, whereas a large gap in the lesion site was still present in the control group (A). In both of PLGA and PLGA-PEG group, cavity areas were reduced compared with control group (B). The smallest cavity area was observed in PLGA-PEG group. However, larger cavities were observed in the PLGA group (P<0.05, Student t-test, n = 3) (C). (Credit: PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117709)

Spinal Cord Research - Gross morphology and cavity formation of spinal cord tissue dissected at 8 weeks post-operation (Credit: PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117709)

Gross Morphology and Cavity Formation of Spinal Cord Tissue dissected at 8 Weeks Post-Op: The PLGA and PLGA-PEG nanofibers both contributed to tissue structural integrity, whereas a large gap in the lesion site was still present in the control group (A). In both of PLGA and PLGA-PEG group, cavity areas were reduced compared with control group (B). The smallest cavity area was observed in PLGA-PEG group. However, larger cavities were observed in the PLGA group (P<0.05, Student t-test, n = 3) (C). (Credit: PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117709)

Spinal Cord Research - Gross morphology and cavity formation of spinal cord tissue dissected at 8 weeks post-operation (Credit: PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117709)

Gross Morphology and Cavity Formation of Spinal Cord Tissue dissected at 8 Weeks Post-Op: The PLGA and PLGA-PEG nanofibers both contributed to tissue structural integrity, whereas a large gap in the lesion site was still present in the control group (A). In both of PLGA and PLGA-PEG group, cavity areas were reduced compared with control group (B). The smallest cavity area was observed in PLGA-PEG group. However, larger cavities were observed in the PLGA group (P<0.05, Student t-test, n = 3) (C). (Credit: PLoS ONE 10(3): e0117709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117709)

Dr. Gary K. Michelson

“Mechanical devices have changed the world. The Industrial Revolution did just that. And the latest and greatest manifestation of that has been the evolution of computers which make the prospect of robotics feasible. But that notwithstanding, I personally do not believe that the answer to spinal cord injury will ultimately rest in the perfection of compensatory robotics and that belief is based on the issues of weight and power”.

“I believe there is an answer. Frogs do it, starfish do it and we can too, The greatest breakthrough applicable to this problem lies in understanding how to activate the already present genes to address the injury to the cord. Research in the use of stem cells has been ongoing and understanding the full potential of CRISPR Cas9 has only just begun. Ultimately the solution to spinal cord injury will be biological, not mechanical”.

Dr. Gary K. Michelson

Dr. Gary K. Michelson

“Mechanical devices have changed the world. The Industrial Revolution did just that. And the latest and greatest manifestation of that has been the evolution of computers which make the prospect of robotics feasible. But that notwithstanding, I personally do not believe that the answer to spinal cord injury will ultimately rest in the perfection of compensatory robotics and that belief is based on the issues of weight and power”.

“I believe there is an answer. Frogs do it, starfish do it and we can too, The greatest breakthrough applicable to this problem lies in understanding how to activate the already present genes to address the injury to the cord. Research in the use of stem cells has been ongoing and understanding the full potential of CRISPR Cas9 has only just begun. Ultimately the solution to spinal cord injury will be biological, not mechanical”.

Dr. Gary K. Michelson

Dr. Gary K. Michelson

“Mechanical devices have changed the world. The Industrial Revolution did just that. And the latest and greatest manifestation of that has been the evolution of computers which make the prospect of robotics feasible. But that notwithstanding, I personally do not believe that the answer to spinal cord injury will ultimately rest in the perfection of compensatory robotics and that belief is based on the issues of weight and power”.

“I believe there is an answer. Frogs do it, starfish do it and we can too, The greatest breakthrough applicable to this problem lies in understanding how to activate the already present genes to address the injury to the cord. Research in the use of stem cells has been ongoing and understanding the full potential of CRISPR Cas9 has only just begun. Ultimately the solution to spinal cord injury will be biological, not mechanical”.

Dr. Gary K. Michelson

Dr. Gary K. Michelson

“Mechanical devices have changed the world. The Industrial Revolution did just that. And the latest and greatest manifestation of that has been the evolution of computers which make the prospect of robotics feasible. But that notwithstanding, I personally do not believe that the answer to spinal cord injury will ultimately rest in the perfection of compensatory robotics and that belief is based on the issues of weight and power”.

“I believe there is an answer. Frogs do it, starfish do it and we can too, The greatest breakthrough applicable to this problem lies in understanding how to activate the already present genes to address the injury to the cord. Research in the use of stem cells has been ongoing and understanding the full potential of CRISPR Cas9 has only just begun. Ultimately the solution to spinal cord injury will be biological, not mechanical”.

Dr. Gary K. Michelson

Featured Image Credit: Carnegie Mellon University College of Engineering

References

  1. Systemic Administration of Epothilone B promotes Axon Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury [2015-04-17; Jörg Ruschel, Farida Hellal, Kevin C. Flynn, Sebastian Dupraz, David A. Elliott, Andrea Tedeschi, Margaret Bates, Christopher Sliwinski, Gary Brook, Kristina Dobrindt, Michael Peitz, Oliver Brüstle, Michael D. Norenberg, Armin Blesch, Norbert Weidner, Mary Bartlett Bunge, John L. Bixby, Frank Bradke, Science]
  2. Modulation of the Proteoglycan Receptor PTPσ promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury (2015-02-19; Bradley T. Lang, Jared M. Cregg, Marc A. DePaul, Amanda P. Tran, Kui Xu, Scott M. Dyck, Kathryn M. Madalena, Benjamin P. Brown, Yi-Lan Weng, Shuxin Li, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Sarah A. Busch, Yingjie Shen & Jerry Silver, Nature]
  3. Reducing the Energy Cost of Human Walking using an Unpowered Exoskeleton [2015-06-11; Steven H. Collins, M. Bruce Wiggin & Gregory S. Sawicki, Nature]
  4. Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch [2015-03-18; Edmund Foster, Hendrik Wildner, Laetitia Tudeau, Sabine Haueter, William T. Ralvenius, Monika Jegen, Helge Johannssen, Ladina Hösli, Karen Haenraets, Alexander Ghanem, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Michael Bösl, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Neuron]
  5. Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Completely Transected Spinal Cord Using Induced Neural Stem Cells and Gelatin-Electrospun Poly (Lactide-Co-Glycolide)/Polyethylene Glycol Scaffolds [2015-03-24; Chang Liu, Yong Huang, Mao Pang, Yang Yang, Shangfu Li, Linshan Liu, Tao Shu, Wei Zhou, Xuan Wang, Limin Rong, Bin Lui, PLoS One]

Related Links

Nisha Kaul Cooch is Founder and Principal of BioInnovation Consulting LLC, a life sciences communications firm based in Washington DC. While earning her Ph.D. in Neuroscience, she studied the nature of decision making and information processing. The focus of her current work is entrepreneurship in the biotechnology industry.

Nisha Kaul Cooch is Founder and Principal of BioInnovation Consulting LLC, a life sciences communications firm based in Washington DC. While earning her Ph.D. in Neuroscience, she studied the nature of decision making and information processing. The focus of her current work is entrepreneurship in the biotechnology industry.

Nisha Kaul Cooch is Founder and Principal of BioInnovation Consulting LLC, a life sciences communications firm based in Washington DC. While earning her Ph.D. in Neuroscience, she studied the nature of decision making and information processing. The focus of her current work is entrepreneurship in the biotechnology industry.

Nisha Kaul Cooch is Founder and Principal of BioInnovation Consulting LLC, a life sciences communications firm based in Washington DC. While earning her Ph.D. in Neuroscience, she studied the nature of decision making and information processing. The focus of her current work is entrepreneurship in the biotechnology industry.

The Michelson Medical Research Foundation is a proud supporter of Paralyzed Veterans of America and the Michelson Post-Injury Glial Scarring Initiative thanks to the generous support of Dr. Gary K. Michelson and his wife, Alya Michelson.

The Michelson Medical Research Foundation is a proud supporter of Paralyzed Veterans of America and the Michelson Post-Injury Glial Scarring Initiative thanks to the generous support of Dr. Gary K. Michelson and his wife, Alya Michelson.

The Michelson Medical Research Foundation is a proud supporter of Paralyzed Veterans of America and the Michelson Post-Injury Glial Scarring Initiative thanks to the generous support of Dr. Gary K. Michelson and his wife, Alya Michelson.

The Michelson Medical Research Foundation is a proud supporter of Paralyzed Veterans of America and the Michelson Post-Injury Glial Scarring Initiative thanks to the generous support of Dr. Gary K. Michelson and his wife, Alya Michelson.